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使用shell脚本一键部署LNMP架构的方法

其他综合 2021-12-13

LNMP架构介绍

LNMP:Linux系统下Nginx+MySQL+PHP这种网站服务器架构。Nginx是一个高性能的HTTP和反向代理服务器,也是一个IMAP/POP3/SMTP代理服务器。Mysql是一个小型关系型数据库管理系统。PHP是一种在服务器端执行的嵌入HTML文档的脚本语言。

原理:浏览器发送http request请求到服务器(Nginx),服务器响应并处理web请求,将一些静态资源(CSS,图片,视频等)保存服务器上,然后将php脚本通过接口传输协议(网关协议)PHP-FCGI(fast-cgi)传输给PHP-FPM(进程管理程序),PHP-FPM不做处理,然后PHP-FPM调用PHP解析器进程,PHP解析器解析php脚本信息。PHP解析器进程可以启动多个,进行并发执行。然后将解析后的脚本返回到PHP-FPM,PHP-FPM再通过fast-cgi的形式将脚本信息传送给Nginx.服务器再通过Http response的形式传送给浏览器。浏览器再进行解析与渲染然后进行呈现。

下面给大家介绍下使用shell脚本一键部署LNMP架构的方法,脚本如下所示:

#/bin/bash

##将需要的安装包传到/opt目录下,并关闭防火墙
systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld &>/dev/null
setenforce 0

###############Nginx###############

##先挂载,再安装依赖包
df -h | grep /mnt
if [ $? -ne 0 ];then
mount /dev/cdrom /mnt &>/dev/null
fi
yum -y install pcre-devel zlib-devel gcc gcc-c++ make

##创建运行用户、组(Nginx服务程序默认以nobody身份运行,建议为其创建专门的用户账号,以便更准确的控制其访问权限)
useradd -M -s /sbin/nologin nginx

##编译安装
cd /opt
tar zxvf nginx-1.12.0.tar.gz
cd nginx-1.12.0/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_stub_status_module

make -j 2 && make install

##优化配置文件路径,并把nginx服务的可执行程序文件放入路径环境变量的目录中便于系统识别
ln -s /usr/local/nginx/sbin/* /usr/local/sbin

##添加Nginx系统服务
cat > /lib/systemd/system/nginx.service <<EOF
[Unit]
Description=nginx
After=network.target
[Service]
Type=forking
PIDFile=/usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid
ExecStart=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx
ExecReload=/bin/kill -1 $MAINPID
ExecStop=/bin/kill -3 $MAINPID
PrivateTmp=true
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

##修改文件权限
chmod 754 /lib/systemd/system/nginx.service
systemctl start nginx.service
systemctl enable nginx.service &>/dev/null

###############MySQL###############
##安装MySQL环境依赖包
yum -y install ncurses ncurses-devel bison cmake

##创建运行用户
useradd -M -s /sbin/nologin mysql

##编译安装
cd /opt
tar zxvf mysql-boost-5.7.20.tar.gz
cd /opt/mysql-5.7.20
cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql -DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock -DSYSCONFDIR=/etc -DSYSTEMD_PID_DIR=/usr/local/mysql -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci -DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=all -DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 -DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 -DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 -DWITH_PERFSCHEMA_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 -DMYSQL_DATADIR=/usr/local/mysql/data -DWITH_BOOST=boost -DWITH_SYSTEMD=1

make -j 2 && make install

##修改mysql配置文件
cat > /etc/my.cnf <<EOF
[client]
port = 3306
socket=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock			
[mysqld]
user = mysql
basedir=/usr/local/mysql
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data
port = 3306
character-set-server=utf8
pid-file = /usr/local/mysql/mysqld.pid
socket=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock
bind-address = 0.0.0.0
skip-name-resolve
max_connections=2048
default-storage-engine=INNODB
max_allowed_packet=16M
server-id = 1
sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO,NO_ZERO_IN_DATE,NO_ZERO_DATE,ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,PIPES_AS_CONCAT,ANSI_QUOTES
EOF

##更改mysql安装目录和配置文件的属主属组
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/
chown mysql:mysql /etc/my.cnf

##设置路径环境变量
echo 'export PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:/usr/local/mysql/lib:$PATH' >> /etc/profile	
source /etc/profile

##初始化数据化
cd /usr/local/mysql/bin/
./mysqld --initialize-insecure --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data

##添加mysqld系统服务
cp /usr/local/mysql/usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service /usr/lib/systemd/system/
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start mysqld.service
systemctl enable mysqld &>/dev/null

##添加mysql的登录密码
function mima {
passwd=$1
/usr/bin/expect <<-EOF
spawn mysqladmin -u root -p password $passwd
expect "Enter" {send "\n"}
expect eof
EOF
}
mima "abc123"

##授权远程登录
function qwe {
/usr/bin/expect <<-EOF
spawn mysql -u root -p
expect "Enter" {send "abc123\n"}
expect "mysql" {send "grant all privileges on *.* to 'root'@'%' identified by 'abc123';\n"}
expect "mysql" {send "flush privileges;\n"}
expect "mysql" {send "show databases;\n"}
expect "mysql" {send "quit\n"}
expect eof
EOF
}
qwe
###############PHP###############
##安装环境依赖包
yum -y install gd libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel curl curl-devel openssl openssl-devel

##编译安装
cd /opt
tar jxvf php-7.1.10.tar.bz2
cd ./php-7.1.10/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/php --with-mysql-sock=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock --with-mysqli --with-zlib --with-curl --with-gd --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-freetype-dir --with-openssl --enable-fpm --enable-mbstring --enable-xml --enable-session --enable-ftp --enable-pdo --enable-tokenizer --enable-zip

make -j 2 && make install

##路径优化
ln -s /usr/local/php/bin/* /usr/local/bin/
ln -s /usr/local/php/sbin/* /usr/local/sbin/

##调整PHP配置文件
##PHP有三个配置文件
##php.ini(主配置文件)
cp /opt/php-7.1.10/php.ini-development /usr/local/php/lib/php.ini
sed -i '1170c mysqli.default_socket = /usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock' /usr/local/php/lib/php.ini
sed -i '939c date.timezone = Asia/Shanghai' /usr/local/php/lib/php.ini

php -m
##php-fpm.conf(进程服务配置文件)
cd /usr/local/php/etc
cp php-fpm.conf.default php-fpm.conf
sed -i '17c pid = run/php-fpm.pid' /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
##www.conf(扩展配置文件)
cd /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.d
cp www.conf.default www.conf

##启动php-fpm
cd /usr/local/php/sbin/
php-fpm -c /usr/local/php/lib/php.ini

##配置Nginx支持PHP解析
sed -i '65c location ~ \.php$ {' /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
sed -i '66c root html;' /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
sed -i '67c fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;' /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
sed -i '68c fastcgi_index index.php;' /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
sed -i '69c fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /usr/local/nginx/html$fastcgi_script_name;' /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
sed -i '70c include fastcgi_params;' /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
sed -i '71c }' /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

##验证PHP测试页和验证数据库工作是否正常

cat > /usr/local/nginx/html/index.php <<EOF
<?php
phpinfo();
?>
EOF

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